Constitutional law – Judicial power – Respondent detained pursuant to order of Supreme Court of New South Wales made under Community Protection Act 1994 (NSW) (“CP Act”) – CP Act subsequently held invalid – Respondent sought damages for false imprisonment – Whether order of Supreme Court valid until set aside – Whether order of Supreme Court judicial order.
Torts – False imprisonment – Defences – Lawful authority – Respondent held under order of Supreme Court subsequently set aside – Whether officers of appellant could rely on order made under invalid legislation as lawful authority.
Words and phrases – “judicial order”, “lawful authority”, “superior court of record”, “void ab initio”, “void or voidable”.
I refer you to the judgment summary.
FRENCH CJ, HAYNE, CRENNAN, KIEFEL, BELL AND KEANE JJ:
More fundamental considerations
The conclusions reached in these reasons about the effect of the order made by Levine J accord with fundamental considerations about the operation of any developed legal system. There must come a point in any developed legal system where decisions made in the exercise of judicial power are given effect despite the particular decision later being set aside or reversed. That point may be marked in a number of ways. One way in which it is marked, in Australian law, is by treating the orders of a superior court of record as valid until set aside.
Were this not so, the exercise of judicial power could yield no adjudication of rights and liabilities to which immediate effect could be given. An order made by a superior court of record would have no more than provisional effect until either the time for appeal or review had elapsed or final appeal or review had occurred. Both the individuals affected by the order, and in this case the Executive, would be required to decide whether to obey the order made by a court which required steps to be taken to the detriment of another. The individuals affected by the order, and here the Executive, would have to choose whether to disobey the order (and run the risk of contempt of court or some other coercive process) or incur tortious liability to the person whose rights and liabilities are affected by the order.
In this case, if the detention order made by Levine J was not effective until set aside, those apparently bound by the order were obliged to disobey it, lest they be held responsible for false imprisonment. On Mr Kable’s argument, the order was without legal effect and should not have been obeyed. The decision to disobey the order would have required both the individual gaoler and the Executive Government of New South Wales to predict whether this Court would accept what were then novel constitutional arguments. More fundamentally, as the legal philosopher Hans Kelsen wrote, “[a] status where everybody is authorized to declare every norm, that is to say, everything which presents itself as a norm, as nul, is almost a status of anarchy”.
Finally, it will be recalled that Mr Kable submitted that the effect of this Court’s orders in Kable (No 1) was to render the order of Levine J void ab initio. This Court did not declare the order made by Levine J to be void. As a judicial order of a superior court of record, the order of Levine J was valid until set aside. It was not “void ab initio”.
David Cormack – Brisbane Barrister